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1. Introduction
2. What is blood doping?
3. How does it work?
4. Respiratory physiology
5. The physiology of endurance sports
6. Ventilation during endurance sports
7. Cardiac output during endurance sports
8. Aerobic metabolism during endurance sports
9. Conclusion - blood doping kills
10. References

As we are concerned with modification of VO2max during physical performance, it seems appropriate to observe pulmonary ventilation first. Ventilation increases during maximal exercise leading to improvements in maximal oxygen uptake. The tidal volume becomes larger and breathing frequency is reduced. As a consequence, air remains in the lungs for a longer period of time between breaths and there is an increased extraction of oxygen from inspired air.

During endurance exercise individuals tend to overbreathe in relation to oxygen uptake. Even during maximal exercise, a considerable breathing reserve exists because minute ventilation represents only bout 60-80% of a person's maximum capacity for breathing (Blomqvist et al 1982). This would indicate that pulmonary ventilation is not usually a weak link in the normal oxygen transport system and that it has slack in the system which can utilise the extra oxygen carrying capacity which results from EPO abuse.

Cardiac output during endurance sports >

Article published: 10th June 2003