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1. Introduction
2. What is blood doping?
3. How does it work?
4. Respiratory physiology
5. The physiology of endurance sports
6. Ventilation during endurance sports
7. Cardiac output during endurance sports
8. Aerobic metabolism during endurance sports
9. Conclusion - blood doping kills
10. References

Despite numerous positive tests for performance enhancing drugs in Italy and Spain, there has not yet been a positive test in the English Premier League. Although performance enhancing drugs have never been part of the culture of English football, some notable figures have their suspicions.

FIFA Medical Committee chairman, Michel D'Hooghe, commented "EPO is now quite commonly used in other sports, and I cannot imagine there is a barrier for EPO around the football field."

It has been claimed that weaknesses in the Football Association's drug-testing system could encourage cheats to believe they would not be caught in England. There is a belief that players should be tested far more regularly. During the 2000-01 season, 1,016 tests were carried out in England, with only 24 of these samples taken after matches and the rest sampled at club training grounds. This contrasts with Italy, where two players from each team are tested after every single match. Also, as blood samples are not routinely taken in England, there is no test for EPO or blood doping.

So, what exactly is blood doping?

What is blood doping? >

Article published: 10th June 2003