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1. Work rate >
2. Individualised training >
3. Team training - the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test
4. Periodisation >
5. In conclusion >
6. References >

A more practical approach may be for the whole squad to use a training program that roughly mirrors the activities undertaken during matches. Nicholas et al (1999) attempted to determine the test-retest reliability of an exercise program that simulates the activity pattern of a match. This test was termed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). The study was very well controlled and demonstrated the LIST to exhibit good reproducibility. An array of physiological measuremens were observed (including perceived exertion, blood glucose levels, blood lactate and changes in plasma volume and body mass) and all found to be similar to the responses reported during matches. The total distance covered in the two parts of the LIST was 12.4 km, covered at various speeds as is observed during matches. The test is fairly easy to administer and could be done as a group. It is quantifiable and specific to association football. It could certainly be used by by squads in order to maintain aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.

The one drawback with the LIST described by Nicholas et al (1999) is that it doesn't involve any ball work, which is central to the game of association football. It is possible that this could be addressed by the use of small sided practice games in training. Allen et al evaluated the physical and physiological demands of 5 a-side and 11 a-side matches. They found that the ratio of high intensity to moderate/low intensity work, and the corresponding heart rate values, were significantly higher in the 5 a-side games. However, the authors acknowledge the fact only four subjects were observed and this limits the credibility of the study.

Periodisation >