Here we present a rehabilitation programme for a professional footballer with a grade II lateral collateral knee ligament sprain.


Days 1 to 3

Acute Phase

Rest from activity.

Protect the injury site from further damage by using crutches to avoid putting any weight through the injured leg.

Apply ice packs or a 'cryo-cuff' device for 10 minutes every 2 hours (never apply ice directly to the skin). This will have a pain-relieving effect and also help to control the swelling. Apply a compression bandage to limit the joint swelling. The injured knee should be elevated in order to control and reduce swelling. Oral anti-inflammatory medication may be prescribed by a doctor.

Days 4 to 14

Sub-acute Phase

Continue to rest the injured part completely.

Continue to protect the injured knee from further damage by using crutches. If it is not too painful it may be possible to begin partial weight-bearing on the affected leg whilst continuing to use the crutches. To further protect the knee a hinged knee brace should be used to prevent stress on the lateral ligament. This should be locked between minus 10 degrees of extension and 90 degrees of flexion.

Once the inflammatory response from the damaged tissue has settled (after 3-5 days) the ligament begins to lay down scar tissue to repair itself. It is thought that this process can be encouraged with the use of electrotherapy treatments such as ultrasound and pulsed short-wave diathermy.

Begin ankle and hip range-of-movement exercises.

Weeks 2 to 4

Early Active
Rehabilitation
Phase

The hinged knee brace should be worn at all times during the early active rehabilitation phase, and should be set between minus 5 degrees of extension and 110 degrees of flexion. Provided it is not too painful, full weight-bearing should be encouraged and the crutches should be abandoned.

A normal gait pattern should be present, with the heel striking the ground first and the toes pushing off for the next step.

Isometric quadriceps should be performed in the pain-free range of movement. Straight leg raising should be performed to reinforce quads contractions.

Gentle range-of-movement exercises should be encouraged between 90 and 30 degrees of knee flexion.

Early proprioception exercises should be initiated.

Weeks 4 to 6

Active
Rehabilitation
Phase

The hinged knee brace should be worn at all times during the active rehabilitation phase. There should be no restriction of knee extension or flexion.

Range-of-movement exercises should be continued.

When range of movement allows, static cycling should be initiated.

Isotonic muscle strengthening exercises should be initiated and resistance gradually increased (leg press/squats/hamstring curls/quads extensions).

Continue proprioceptive training.

Weeks 6 to 10

Late Active
Rehabilitation
Phase

The hinged knee brace should continue to be worn, without restriction of knee extension or flexion.

Range-of-movement exercises should be continued, until full range of extension and flexion is pain free.

Isotonic muscle strengthening should continue, so that the affected knee's quads and hamstrings have 90% strength of the unaffected knee.

Continue static cycling and increase resistance.

Initiate straight line running, gradually increasing the pace. Initiate 'figure-of-eight' running, gradually increasing turns.

Begin 'fitter' exercises.

Weeks 10+

Functional
Rehabilitation
Phase

The hinged knee brace should be discarded.

Isotonic muscle strengthening should continue.

Continue to progress static cycling.

Increase speed of running and increase turning angle to 180 degrees.

Begin cliniband lateral agility/running exercises and star jumps. Hop distance should be 100% of opposite knee. Kicking the ball/block tackling.